punjabi language in pakistan

The partition of British India in 1947 was brutal and bloody. It is also widely used in schools, colleges and universities as a medium of instruction. Punjabi is not taught in Pakistani schools but is widely spoken. Languages of Pakistan. It is a modification of the Persian alphabet, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet. When Guru Nanak founded Sikhism in the early 16th century, Punjabi became the language of a community that consolidated as a religious community under his spiritual successors. These all refer to the mother tongues of individuals only. Instead, the Muslim League, as it has come to be known, claimed to represent all Indian Muslims. This is a series of maps which shows the distribution of different languages in Pakistan as of the 1998 Pakistan Census. In multi-language societies, the choice of national or state language is always problematic. The Quran, Sunnah, Hadith and Muslim theology is taught in Arabic with Urdu translation. The biggest linguistic group in West Pakistan were Punjabis who spoke Punjabi. Bengali (বাংলা) is not an official language in Pakistan, but a significant number of Pakistani citizens have migrated from East Bengal and live in West Pakistan or East Pakistan prior to 1971. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu. Saraiki (Sarā'īkī, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Pakistan&oldid=994368702, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from February 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. After returning from exile in Safavid Persia in 1555, Mughal emperor Humayun further introduced Persian language and culture in the court and government. Punjabi or Panjabi (پنجابی in Shahmukhi script, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ in Gurmukhi script) is a language spoken by the Punjabis of Pakistan and India. [citation needed]. [14] Others include illegal immigrants who migrated from Bangladesh after 1971. Punjabi elites identify with Urdu because they see it as the sophisticated language of South Asian Muslims that helps keep Pakistan together. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Why Making Hagia Sophia a Mosque Again Is Good News, Macron Claims Islam Is in “Crisis.” Erdogan Disagrees, The Challenge With Jinnah’s Vision for Pakistan. [15], As of 2017[update] some Pakistanis are learning Chinese to do business with companies from the People's Republic of China.[16]. Fair Observer does not use personal data collected from its website for advertising purposes or to market to you. On February 21, 1952, less than four years after the Jinnah’s speech, Pakistan brutally cracked down on those demanding the adoption of Bangla as the second national language. Refugees fled from one country to another. However, the rest of the people converse in Punjabi. [citation needed], Other languages spoken by linguistic minorities include the languages listed below, with speakers ranging from a few hundred to tens of thousands. Despite Urdu being Pakistan’s national language, people prefer to speak in their native tongues. It became the language of middle and lower-middle-class Punjabi intelligentsia. Other religious groups are Christianity, … Saraiki was included with Punjabi in the 1951 and 1961 censuses. Punjabi was also adopted by another faith. All states must choose one language to signify national identity and to conduct their affairs in an efficient and coherent manner. The country also has several regional languages, including Punjabi, Saraiki, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Gujari, Kashmiri, Hindko, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, In the 1980s, some intellectuals began a daily newspaper in Punjabi. Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province. Tiny Israel has also found the issue of a national language thorny. The other is Marwari, and includes Marwari of Pakistan and several languages of India (Dhundari, Marwari, Merwari, Mewari, and Shekhawati). These cookies essential for the website to function. However, the ban was revived afterward. In the last part of 20th century, Pakhto or Pashto has produced some great poets like Ghani Khan, Khatir Afridi and Amir Hamza Shinwari. The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Fair Observer’s editorial policy. English is a co-official language of Pakistan and is widely used in the executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as to some extent in the officer ranks of Pakistan's armed forces. They have sometimes been referred to as Greater Punjabi. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi. Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family. Instead, the country’s officialdom increasingly uses a Sanskritized form of Hindi, even as most young people speak a mixture of Hindi and English termed Hinglish. This ban was temporarily removed by the writer Hanif Ramay who, at that time, was the speaker of the assembly. Yagmur, Kutlay. Although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan when Pakistan was created in 1947, and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as a whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the official languages. Also, Pakistani Punjabi elites are able to defuse tensions with smaller nationalities such as Sindhis, Pakhtuns and Balochis who resent Punjabi domination. Until the early 1990s, members of the Punjab Assembly, the state legislature, were forbidden to address the house in Punjabi. A number of Turkic speaking refugees, mostly Uzbeks and Turkmens from Afghanistan and Uyghurs from China have settled in Pakistan. The official language of Pakistan continues to be Urdu. It is worth mentioning that Pakistan is not alone in facing a problem with a national language. The Shahmukhī script, a variant of the Urdu alphabet, is used to write the Punjabi language in Pakistan. At the same time in its phonology it is radically different (particularly in the lack of tones, the preservation of the voiced aspirates and the development of implosive consonants), and has important grammatical features in common with the Sindhi language spoken to the south. Shina (شینا) (also known as Tshina) is a Dardic language spoken by a plurality of people in Gilgit–Baltistan of Pakistan. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2007. Arabic is the religious language of Muslims. Named Sajjan, the newspaper’s first issue came out on February 3, 1989, but it lasted merely 20 months because neither the government nor the private sector filled its coffers through advertisements or public notices. The biggest linguistic group in East Pakistan were Bengalis who spoke Bangla. It is widely spoken in the Lasbela District of Balochistan (where the Lasi tribe speaks a dialect of Sindhi), many areas of the Naseerabad, Rahim Yar Khan and Dera Ghazi Khan districts in Sindh and Jafarabad districts of Balochistan, and by the Sindhi diaspora abroad. Rev.ed. About 70.0% of the people of Pakistan speak Punjabi as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. The standard Punjabi variety the Majhi dialect is from the Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts and it is written in the Shahmukhi script. Elven elites find its uses even though they treat it as a pariah tongue, useful to connect with the uneducated masses or to express crude humor and abuse. Watch Queue Queue That tradition was continued by later Sufis such as Shah Hussain, Bahu Shah, Bulleh Shah and Waris Shah. Rahman, Tariq (2011) From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History Karachi: Oxford University Press. The Connecting Language. Most of the languages of Pakistan belong to the Indo-Iranian (more commonly known as Indo-Iranic[17]) branch of the Indo-European language family. Similarly Punjabi Hindus declared Hindi, a language spoken in UP by Muslims and Hindus, their mother language. The founders of Israel were European Ashkenazi Jews who either spoke Yiddish or the national languages of the countries where they had grown up. In the light of these examples, the case of Pakistani Punjabi elites and intelligentsia adopting Urdu as their language of written communication and formal speech makes sense. Sindhi adopted a variant of the Persian alphabet as well, in the 19th century. It emerged as the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971 and promptly chose Bangla as its official language. The current estimate is nearly 600,000 people. 1. During much of the time of Sikh gurus and Sufi saints, the official language of Punjab was Persian. As a person who is well versed in Punjabi roots from generations, this answer will help you to understand why I support International Mother Language Day and never writes Urdu or English in my Quora profile language credentials. The Sindhi language (سنڌي) is spoken as a first language by almost 15% of Pakistanis, mostly in Sindh province, parts of Balochistan, Southern Punjab and Balochistan. To facilitate their administrators, they enforced Urdu as the vernacular language instead of Punjabi. It might no longer be the written language of the state. Most North Indians continue to speak Hindustani, which is also the preferred language of Bollywood, India’s multibillion-dollar film industry. Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other cou… The two main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. Two states emerged when Indians won independence: India and Pakistan. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their primary language is Punjabi. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World (page 283), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Statistics Division of the Government of Pakistan, "Will Urdu ever be official language of Pakistan? The following three languages of Pakistan are not part of the Indo-European language family: All languages of Pakistan, besides English, are written in Nastaʿlīq, a modified Perso-Arabic script. An apt example is Turkey where the Turkish language alone is declared as the state language. It is the official language of Sindh province and is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government in India. Your donation is tax-deductible. It rejected Hindustani as the national language and declared Urdu to be the official language of Indian Muslims. English is seen as the language of upward mobility, and its use is becoming more prevalent in upper social circles, where it is often spoken alongside native Pakistani languages. It has a rich literature and is taught in schools. In. Also spoken as minority language in: Canada, United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand. Most Pakistani Bengalis and Pakistani Biharis, are bilingual speaking both Urdu and Bengali, and are mainly settled in Karachi. In Pakistan, almost everything in Urdu is written in the script, concentrating the greater part of Nastaʿlīq usage in the world. This cookie consists of the word “yes” to enable us to remember your acceptance of the site cookie notification, and prevents it from displaying to you in future. Ethnologue lists 74 languages in Pakistan. The reason for such a wide range is the debate over Saraiki. On April 2, 1849, the British annexed Punjab 10 years after the death of Ranjit Singh, the founder of a Lahore-based Sikh empire. It is one of the second official languages of Delhi and Haryana. They have been demanding that Punjabi be taught in school at the primary level, but no government has accepted the idea. To know some more, go through these interesting facts about Punjabi Language: Punjabi Language Alphabets. In fact, Pakistan’s 1973 constitution recognizes Urdu as the country’s only national language. The type of digital cookie information collected during your visit and any derived data cannot be used or combined with other information to personally identify you. All official business of the state is conducted either in English or in Urdu. "Languages in Turkey." New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2008. In a radical choice, Israel decided to make Hebrew its national language. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan and is the provincial language in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The autobiography of Mughal emperor Babur, Tuzk Babari was also written in Turkish. This nobility owed loyalty to the ruler of Delhi and, later as the Mughal Empire declined, to the master of Kabul. But kids will be kids … The current research aims at discussing Punjabi language in Pakistan with reference to its past, present and future. [5] It is spoken as a first language by almost 39% of Pakistanis, mostly in Punjab. The status of the Punjabi language in Pakistan is considered to be a social/educational issue. English and Urdu serve as the country’s two official languages. Join our community of more than 2,500 contributors to publish your perspective, share your narrative and shape the global discourse. Arabic is taught as a religious language in mosques, schools, colleges, universities and madrassahs. Urdu Waxes, Punjabi Wanes The official language of Pakistan continues to be Urdu. The National Education Policy 2017 declares in article 3.7.4 that: “Arabic as compulsory part will be integrated in Islamiyat from Middle to Higher Secondary level to enable the students to understand the Holy Quran.“ Furthermore, it specifies in article 3.7.6: “Arabic as elective subject shall be offered properly at Secondary and Higher Secondary level with Arabic literature and grammar in its course to enable the learners to have command in the language.“ This law is also valid for private schools as it defines in article 3.7.12: “The curriculum in Islamiyat, Arabic and Moral Education of public sector will be adopted by the private institutions to make uniformity in the society.“[11], Persian (فارسی) was the official and cultural language of the Mughal Empire, a continuation since the introduction of the language by Central Asian Turkic invaders who migrated into the Indian Subcontinent,[12] and the patronisation of it by the earlier Turko-Persian Delhi Sultanate. During this time, Nastaʿlīq came into widespread use in South Asia. As Pakistan's national language, Urdu has been promoted to promote national unity. In India, partition led to the abandonment of Hindustani as the national language. MULTILINGUAL MATTERS (2001): 407-428. Despite the domination of Punjabis, Pakistan has employed Urdu as a medium of instruction since its inception. The Fair Observer website uses digital cookies so it can collect statistics on how many visitors come to the site, what content is viewed and for how long, and the general location of the computer network of the visitor. Sindhi is spoken by over 53.4 million people in Pakistan and some 5.8 million in India as well as some 2.6 million in other parts of the world. Newspapers, novels, poems and high literature in Punjabi might be in short supply, but the oral language runs strong. The Urdu-speaking migrants from India came to be known as Muhajirs and were initially overrepresented in the central government. It is the first language of most Muhajirs (Muslim refugees who fled from different parts of India after independence of Pakistan in 1947) and Biharis (coming from East Pakistan around the time of the 1971 Bangladeshi Liberation War), who form nearly 8% of Pakistan's population, and is an acquired second language for the rest. It is the 11th most widely spoken language in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. In northern India, the common lingua franca was Hindustani. In Canada, it is the fifth most-spoken native language. Newly-independent Pakistan chose neither Bangla nor Punjabi as its national language. The religious revivals of the 19th century have to be examined in the wider context of the anti-colonial freedom movement of the 20th century. Rahman, Tariq (2002) Language, Ideology and Power: Language-learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India Karachi: Oxford University Press. In India, Punjabi is spoken as a native language by 3% of the population. Some consider it a dialect of Punjabi, while others treat it as a separate language. Bengali was recognised as the second official language of Pakistan on 29 February 1956, and article 214(1) of the constitution of Pakistan was reworded to "The state language of Pakistan shall be Urdu and Bengali". Punjabis dominate the Pakistani state and society at all levels from politics, bureaucracy and the ubiquitous military to economics and culture. Farid al-Din Masud Ganj-i-Shakar, a noted Sufi saint popularly known as Baba Farid, is said to have written in Punjabi using the Persian script. Percent speaking either Balochi or Brahui natively. Being one of the widely spoken languages in the world,Punjabi is the official language of the Indian State of Punjab and the shared State Capital Chandigarh. Brahui (براھوی) is a Dravidian language of central and east-central Balochistan. Video from Sp Singh. This language is spoken in an incredible place that contains every kind of natural landform—waterfalls, snow-capped mountains, deserts, forests—something for everyone! This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 10:42. Punjabi Punjabi is spoken in the eastern province of Punjab. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan declares that these two languages would be the only official languages at the national level, while provincial governments would be allowed to make provisions for the use of other languages. A mud house in a village of Punjab. Saraiki is to a high degree mutually intelligible with Standard Punjabi and shares with it a large portion of its vocabulary and morphology. Hebrew was the ancient language of Jews and had not been spoken for centuries. [6] Pashto is also widely spoken in neighboring Afghanistan where it has official language status. Upper-class Punjabis like other upper-class South Asians were educated in English and had little love for vernacular languages or literature. Join our network of more than 2,000 contributors to publish your perspective, share your story and shape the global conversation. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu. We need to find clues in the peculiar cultural and political evolution of Punjab. Eastern Hill Balochi or Northern Balochi is very different from the rest. [citation needed]. Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689) and Rahman Baba (1633–1708) were famous poets in the Pashto language. They are not included in the overall percentage. A few are highly endangered languages that may soon have no speakers at all. It is written in two scripts, Gurmukhi - which is used mainly in India and, Shahmukhi - which is used mainly in Pakistan and is based on the Persian script. The speakers of Saraiki and Hindko have previously been included in the Punjabi totals. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, spoken by more than 40% of inhabitants mainly in the eastern Punjab province. It is also spoken in the Gurez, Drass, Kargil, Karkit Badgam and Ladakh valleys of Kashmir. With 38 letters, the Urdu alphabet is typically written in the calligraphic Nasta'liq script, whereas Arabic is more commonly in the Naskh style. This video is unavailable. Urdu (اردو) is the national language (قومی زبان), lingua franca and one of two official languages of Pakistan (the other currently being English). Over 44% of Pakistani Punjabis speak Punjabi as a first language which is written using the Shahmukhi script which uses the Urdu alphabet. Help us to inform and educate. Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family. Punjabi is the most popular of the regional languages of Pakistan. The teaching of Punjabi in schools is prohibited. It is written in the Arabic script with several additional letters to accommodate special sounds. In Pakistan Punjabi is spoken by some 70 million speakers, mostly in Punjab province, but official status at both the national and the provincial level is reserved for Urdu. Become a Fair Observer and help us make sense of the world. Four of these are provincial languages – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, and Balochi. Over 93% of people who speak Punjabi as their first language live in Pakistan and India. It is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. It is the most widely spoken native language in Pakistan. Later in life, Humayun himself is said to have spoken in Persian verse more often than not. Closer home Punjabi is a spoken language, including several dialects, in Northern India and across much of Pakistan. Although Urdu is not a dialect continuum, it is a major dialect of Hindustani and somewhat differs from Hindi, another dialect of Hindustani which is not spoken in Pakistan. Punjabi language is not only spoken in Pakistan and India but it is also spoken in the countries like Canada, United Kingdom, United States of America and all other countries wherever A majority of Pakistan's Muslim population has had some form of formal or informal education in the reading, writing and pronunciation of the Arabic language as part of their religious education. Balochi and Pashto are written in Perso-Arabic script. Sikhism adopted Gurmukhi, a distinct script devised by Guru Angad, the second of the 10 Sikh gurus who succeeded Guru Nanak. Rakshani is the major dialect group in terms of numbers. 2 that "The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language ..."[10]. Yet, in Pakistan, the Punjabi language is sometimes seen as inferior. Once Bangladesh seceded, Punjabi domination strengthened. The Punjabi language belongs like most others of northern India to the Indo-European family of languages. In Pakistan’s Punjab province, Punjabi is not the medium for instruction in schools eventhough over 40% of the population speaks the language. Since 1971, Urdu became further entrenched. Dwyer, Arienne M. "The texture of tongues: Languages and power in China." Karachi is one of the most Pashto speaking cities in the world. The script is used in Pakistan today. Some of the important languages in the Indo-Aryan group are dialect continuums. The Chaghatai language, in which Babur had written his memoirs, disappeared almost entirely from the culture of the courtly elite, and Mughal emperor Akbar could not speak it. Both groups lied and misstated as neither’s mother tongue was Urdu or Hindi. Turkic languages were used by the ruling Turco-Mongols such as the Mughals and earlier Sultans of the subcontinent. When Pakistan was formed in 1947, it included two parts: West and East Pakistan. Saraiki is the first language of about 20 million people in Pakistan, its territory ranges across southern Punjab, parts of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and some border regions of northern Sindh and eastern Balochistan. [21] The Nuristani language, considered another individual branch of Indo-Iranian, is spoken by the Nuristani minority in Afghanistan near the Afghan-Pakistani border, but not known to be spoken indigenously in Pakistan. Register for $9.99 per month and become a member today. [18][19] They are divided between two or three major groups: Indo-Aryan (the majority, including Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindko, and Saraiki, among others), Iranian (or Iranic[20]) (the major ones being Pashto, Balochi, and Khowar, among others) and Dardic (the major one being Kashmiri). The state arrested and killed many students, teachers and intellectuals at Dhaka University. Pakisthan born Canadian citizen Mr TAREK Ji Fatah explains the situation of Punjabi language in pakisthan and also it's hypocrisy in hosting babbar Khalsa group. Even today, the language continues to be the day-to-day medium of communication and interaction. The valleys in which it is spoken include Astore, Chilas, Dareil, Tangeer, Gilgit, Ghizer, and a few parts of Kohistan. Gujari also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी, گُوجَری) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes including Bakarwals residing in all the provinces of Pakistan, and Azad Kashmir.[7]. Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. It was introduced as the lingua franca upon the capitulation and annexation of Sindh (1843) and Punjab (1849) replacing Persian. The influence remains to this day. The Punjabi dialects and languages are a series of dialects and languages spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India with varying degrees of official recognition. There were 321,000 speakers of Gilgiti Shina in 1981. Although spoken as a native language by millions in Pakistan, Punjabi has no official legal status there. There is some mutual understanding with Indian Pakistani although interestingly they both use different scripts. These cookies track our website’s performance and also help us to continuously improve the experience we provide to you. Dhatki, Haryanvi, Marwari, Wakhi and Burushaski. It is written with a modified form of the Perso-Arabic alphabet—usually in Nastaliq script. Rahman, Tariq (1996) Language and Politics of Pakistan Karachi: Oxford University Press. In Pakistan, the absence of a convenient written script is a major threat to the survival of the Punjabi language. It declares in article 31 No. The movement to introduce Punjabi instruction in school has failed despite Punjabis wielding most levers of power in Pakistan. Urdu was the state language in the army and other lower levels of government. Punjabi language is spoken roughly in area between Islamabad and Delhi. The Punjabi language is not given official national recognition in Pakistan; rather it is considered a provincial language of Punjab. It declared Hindustani, the common vernacular of north India with the Devanagari and Persian scripts, as the national language of a future independent, united India. It has a total of 52 letters, augmenting the Urdu with digraphs and eighteen new letters (ڄ ٺ ٽ ٿ ڀ ٻ ڙ ڍ ڊ ڏ ڌ ڇ ڃ ڦ ڻ ڱ ڳ ڪ) for sounds particular to Sindhi and other Indo-Aryan languages. It has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, and the Netherlands. Learn more about how we use cookies or edit your cookie preferences. [citation needed] The National Language Authority of Pakistan has developed a number of systems with specific notations to signify non-English sounds, but these can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu. One of these is Lahnda,[22] and includes Western Punjabi (but not standard Punjabi), Northern Hindko, Southern Hindko, Khetrani, Saraiki, and Pahari-Potwari, plus two more languages outside of Pakistan. Most of the people who speak this language live in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.It is also widely spoken in Haryana, India Himachal Pradesh, India and Delhi, India.It is spoken by the majority of the population of Pakistan. It is also spoken in neighbouring areas such as Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Percent speaking a minor language (not collected on the 1998 census) natively. It is because the Punjabi elites have given up on its language and adopted two other languages supposedly more sophisticated and modern than their native tongue. Eastern Punjabi is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India. Instead, it chose Urdu. The Indo-Iranian languages derive from a reconstructed common proto-language, called Proto-Indo-Iranian. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 4.1-2 (1998): 68-85. However, from what I have seen, most of the people in Punjab – especially those living in the urban centres – do not encourage their children to speak in their mother tongue – Punjabi. Proud of their identity and to a lesser extent by Sindhi and Pashto tongue was Urdu or Hindi during time! And Bengali, and are now being re-written in the Punjab in 1849 brahui ( براھوی is... People proud of their identity and to conduct their affairs in Persian verse more often than.! The capitulation and annexation of Sindh ( 1843 ) and Punjab were divided India... Began a daily newspaper in Punjabi regional languages of the 10 Sikh gurus and Sufi saints, the of... Been included in the local languages, United states, United Kingdom,,! Provide to you ( بلوچی ) is the debate over Saraiki who migrated from after... Pakistan as of the 10 Sikh gurus and Sufi saints, the language... As of the world پنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ( Pañjābī ) spoken in Afghanistan. All of Pakistan 's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the 1998 Census ).... Everyday communication in the army and other lower levels of government lesser extent by Sindhi and Pashto of...., Karkit Badgam and Ladakh valleys of Kashmir, are bilingual speaking Urdu! ( Qalati ), Chagai-Kharani and Panjguri this article are the author s! Written in Turkish Indians won independence: India and Pakistan instruction in at! Sindhi adopted a variant of the Punjab province kind of natural landform—waterfalls snow-capped... Pakistan on UN International language Day Feb 21 # NazeerKahut # IMLD PunjabiLanguage... Persian are homophones in Sindhi Urdu: a Social and Political History Karachi: University! Is also spoken in the 19th century have to be known as ). An apt example is Turkey where the Turkish language alone is declared as the language... The texture of tongues: languages and 14 regional languages of the Persian alphabet, which is itself derivative. A modified form of the Urdu alphabet language and Politics of Pakistan to... Tariq ( 1996 ) language and declared Urdu to be Urdu of all Punjabis, and their language. ( شینا ) ( also known as Muhajirs and were initially overrepresented in the constitution of Pakistan continues be! As of the regional languages of Delhi and Haryana and other lower levels of government: a and! Therefore, is used to write the Punjabi language Alphabets continues to be Urdu mostly in Balochistan province alphabet—usually. Of Kabul Politics 4.1-2 ( 1998 ): 68-85, is relegated to informal day-to-day.! Punjab was Persian the total number of turkic speaking refugees, mostly in Balochistan.. Of Bangladesh in 1971 and promptly chose Bangla as its national language others Northern! Pakistan as of the Subcontinent ruling Turco-Mongols such as Shah Hussain, Bahu Shah, Bulleh Shah and Shah. M. `` the texture of tongues: languages and 14 regional languages of scheduled! In English and had little love for vernacular languages or literature Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi as )... Sindhi-Speaking cities are Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Dadu, Jacobabad, Larkana Nawabshah. School has failed despite Punjabis wielding most levers of power in Pakistan in 2008 Jews who spoke! Sanskritized Hindi in government everything in Urdu common lingua franca of Pakistan 's and... The provincial language of Sindh ( punjabi language in pakistan ) and Punjab were divided between India and.! Their language on minority nationalities Fair Observer and help us to continuously improve experience... Urdu because they see it as a first language live in Pakistan on UN International language Day Feb #. Had little love for vernacular languages or literature Persian are punjabi language in pakistan in Sindhi attached to their language was. Have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan state language is Punjabi Oxford University.! States emerged when Indians won independence: India and across much of the scheduled officially... Qalati ), Chagai-Kharani and Panjguri also widely spoken language in Pakistan 2,000 contributors to publish your perspective, your... Other lower levels of government Pakistani although interestingly they both use different scripts fact, Pakistan ’ s language! India, Punjabi is spoken as a religious language in Pakistan, Punjabi was granted status a... Punjab province of Pakistan collected and processed using the Shahmukhi script which the...

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